Interesting article on South Korea's pro-natal policies. The big takeaway is basically that pro-natalism is failing in Korea. The reason it's failing? It's all aimed at work incentives! This is relevant to the national day care question!
Also worth noting how universal daycare has worked out (or not rather) elsewhere
If you think Japan has low fertility, check out Korea. Japan's fertility rate is 1.44. Korea's is 1.05.
“Over the last decade, South Korea poured $70 billion into incentivizing childbirth, offering up some of the world’s most generous childcare subsidies, with extra perks for working parents and families with multiple kids.” It’s not working.
This from does a great of pointing out where fertility nudges often go wrong. In Seoul, where 1/2 the pop. lives, there are financial incentives to have kids, but many businesses can’t or don’t accommodate things like high chairs or strollers.