This is an excellent primer on Malaysia’s historical tugs of war between Malay & non-Malay, Muslim & non-Muslim, secular pluralism and ethnic-nationalism.
Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew called the Islam he was familiar with “Tropical Islam”; the sort of breezy, relaxed and pragmatic Islam evocative of the serendipity of early Malayan society.
"Starting in the seventies and continuing well into the 21st century, [Malaysia's] carefree Islam...became replaced by a more conservative and politicized variant of the faith," writes Imran Shamsunahar.
What is undoing Malaysia's tolerant strand of "tropical Islam"?
Nuanced, elegant article on Malaysia by the handsome .
Malaysia's Struggle to Preserve Religious Pluralism - Quillette via