Historian Paul Lucier traces the explosion and fragmentation of industrial research over the past 150 years.
Consultancy -> Industry -> Military -> Outsourcing | 150 years of relations between science and industry - “In some ways, twenty-first-century contract research is reminiscent of nineteenth-century consulting science,” writes Paul Lucier via
5th #nature150 essay is out and could not be more timely: Paul Lucier on the history of relations between research and marketplace, from consultancy to industry-based, military science and, recently, outsourcing & global commercialization #HPS